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Practical Panoramic Imaging

Course Number: 589

References / Additional Resources

  1. ADA, FDA. Dental radiographic examinations: Recommendations for patient selection and limiting exposure. Revised 2012. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  2. White SC, Pharoah MJ. Oral radiology: principles and interpretation, 7th ed. St. Louis, Mo. Elsevier/Mosby. 2014.

  3. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. Routine panoramic radiography of new adult patients in general dental practice: relevance of diagnostic yield to treatment and identification of radiographic selection criteria. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2002 Apr;93(4):488-95.

  4. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. Screening panoramic radiography of new adult patients: diagnostic yield when combined with bitewing radiography and identification of selection criteria. Br Dent J. 2002 Mar 9;192(5):275-9.

  5. Rushton MN, Rushton VE. A study to determine the added value of 740 screening panoramic radiographs compared to intraoral radiography in the management of adult (>18 years) dentate patients in a primary care setting. J Dent. 2012 Aug;40(8):661-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2012.04.018. Epub 2012 Apr 27.

  6. Benn DK, Vig PS. Estimates of x-ray radiation related cancers in US dental offices: Is it worth the risk? Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol. 2021;132:597-608.

  7. Bushong SC. Radiologic science for technologists: Physics, biology, and protection, 10th ed. St. Louis, MO. Elsevier-Mosby. 2013.

  8. Parks ET, Williamson GF. Digital radiography: an overview. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2002 Nov 15;3(4):23-39.

  9. Martins MG, Haiter Neto F, Whaites EJ. Analysis of digital images acquired using different phosphor storage plates (PSPs) subjected to varying reading times and storage conditions. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2003 May;32(3):186-90. doi: 10.1259/dmfr/24355220.

  10. Goren AD, Lundeen RC, Deahl ST 2nd, et al. Updated quality assurance self-assessment exercise in intraoral and panoramic radiography. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Radiology Practice Committee. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2000 Mar;89(3):369-74.

  11. Schiff T, D'Ambrosio J, Glass BJ, et al. Common positioning, and technical errors in panoramic radiography. J Am Dent Assoc. 1986 Sep;113(3):422-6.

  12. Ludlow JB, Davies-Ludlow LE, White SC. Patient risk related to common dental radiographic examinations: the impact of 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection recommendations regarding dose calculation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2008 Sep;139(9):1237-43.

  13. Lee GS, Kim JS, Seo YS, et al. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units. Imaging Sci Dent. 2013 Jun;43(2):77-84. doi: 10.5624/isd.2013.43.2.77. Epub 2013 Jun 14.

  14. Akarslan ZZ, Erten H, Güngör K, et al. Common errors on panoramic radiographs taken in a dental school. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2003 May 15;4(2):24-34.

  15. Dhillon M, Raju SM, Verma S, et al. Positioning errors and quality assessment in panoramic radiography. Imaging Sci Dent. 2012 Dec;42(4):207-212. doi: 10.5624/isd.2012.42.4.207. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  16. Subbulakshmi AC, Mohan N, Thiruneervannan R, et al. Positioning errors in digital panoramic radiographs: A study. Journal of Orofacial Sciences. 2016 May;8(1):22-26. doi: 10.4103/0975-8844.181922. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  17. Rushton VE, Horner K, Worthington HV. The quality of panoramic radiographs in a sample of general dental practices. Br Dent J. 1999 Jun 26;186(12):630-3.

  18. Brezden NA, Brooks SL. Evaluation of panoramic dental radiographs taken in private practice. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol. 1987 May;63(5):617-21.

  19. Rondon RHN, Pereira YCL, Crivelaro do Nascimento G. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review. Imaging Sci Dent. 2014 Mar;44(1):1-6. doi: 10.5624/isd.2014.44.1.1. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  20. Abdul-Wahab H, Ferguson DJ, Abou-Kheir N. Assessment of panoral radiograph quality in a dental treatment center. APOS Trends Orthod 2016;6:85-94. doi: 10.4103/2321-1407.177960. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  21. Asha V, Kavya Shankar M, Shalma H, et al. Positioning errors in digital panoramic radiographs-A retrospective analysis. International Journal of Advance Research, Ideas, and Innovation in Technology 2018;4(6):517-521. Accessed May 24, 2019.

  22. Courter BJ. Pseudofractures of the mandible secondary to motion artifact. Am J Emerg Med. 1994 Jan;12(1):88-9.


At Indiana University School of Dentistry

  • Mr. Thomas Meador, photographer, for preparation of some of the photographic illustrations.
  • Mr. Mark Dirlam, graphic artist, for preparation of the graphic illustrations.
  • Ms. Nicole Guerrettaz, administrative assistant, for serving as a model for some images used in this presentation.
  • Mr. Terry Wilson, dental illustrations, for serving as a model for some photographic images used in this presentation.

At the University of Louisville School of Dentistry

  • Ms. Susan Grammer, Associate Professor in the Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene for providing numerous panoramic images used in this presentation demonstrating radiographic errors.
  • Ms. Rebecca Miller, radiologic technologist assisting in developing photographic material and served as a model for images used in this presentation.
  • Barbara Mercer, radiologic technologist assisting in developing photographic material.