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CE589 intro

Practical Panoramic Imaging


Gail F. Williamson, Professor Emerita; William C. Scarfe, BDS, FRACDS

Credit Hours:

3 Hour(s)


Panoramic radiographic imaging technique, error recognition and error correction are the primary areas of emphasis in this course. The components involved in the optimal production of a panoramic image will be outlined. A technique for acqu...

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Panoramic radiographic imaging technique, error recognition and error correction are the primary areas of emphasis in this course. The components involved in the optimal production of a panoramic image will be outlined. A technique for acquiring an image will be presented. Interpretation of the panoramic image will include basic anatomic structures as well as the identification and correction of imaging errors. Finally, a summary of common positioning errors will be provided to facilitate the assessment of unacceptable images incorporating key features of errors ranging from patient preparation to technique problems. This course is provided to enhance the participant’s understanding of common errors and their correction with the goals to improve image quality and reduce retakes and, thus, reduce exposure to the patient.

Syllabus: Dental Radiology

The information in this 12-module syllabus is intended (1) to meet elements of initial educational/training requirements for Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, and Dental Assistant Students related to dental radiography; (2) to provide a framework for an in-service training program in oral healthcare settings to meet annual educational/training requirements as mandated by federal, state, local and professional organizations; and (3) to serve as a resource for oral healthcare personnel wishing to review evidence-based information on specific topics related to dental radiography. A PDF is available for each module that may serve as a convenient resource.

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  • Intended Audience:

    Dentists, Dental Hygienists, Dental Assistants, Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, Dental Assisting Students

  • Date Course Online:

    May 31, 2019

  • Last Revision Date:

    Nov 3, 2022

  • Course Expiration Date:

    Nov 2, 2025

  • Cost:


  • Method:


  • AGD Subject Code(s):


  • Technical Requirements:

    Stable internet connection and the latest version of browser and device software are recommended.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the dental professional should be able to:

  • Discuss radiographic selection criteria and the indications for panoramic imaging.
  • Compare and contrast panoramic and intraoral imaging.
  • Outline the advantages and limitations of panoramic radiographic imaging.
  • Describe the concepts involved in panoramic image formation.
  • Outline the procedures required for correct machine and patient preparation, patient positioning and panoramic unit operation.
  • Become familiar with anatomic structures that are recorded on panoramic images.
  • Identify and propose corrective action for common panoramic image errors.
  • Demonstrate ability to recognize and correct common errors via a self-assessment exercise.


  • P&G is providing these resource materials to dental professionals. We do not own this content nor are we responsible for any material herein.

  • Participants must always be aware of the hazards of using limited knowledge in integrating new techniques or procedures into their practice.  Only sound evidence-based dentistry should be used in patient therapy.

Note:  Registration is required to take test.


Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement

  • The authors report no conflicts of interest associated with this course. They have no relevant financial relationships to disclose.

Gail F. Williamson is Professor Emerita of Dental Diagnostic Sciences, Department of Oral Pathology, Medicine and Radiology at Indiana University School of Dentistry in Indianapolis, Indiana. She received an AS in Dental Hygiene, BS in Allie...

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Submission Information

Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Submission For credit transfers to appear in your AGD account in real time, make sure to add your AGD membership number in the field provided on the “Share Your Test Score” page.

CE Broker For all states that use CE Broker for licensure, “proof of completions” are electronically reported the first of every month. If a course was taken in November, the “proof of completion” will be submitted the beginning of December.


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Approved PACE Program Provider


Nationally Approved PACE Program Provider for FAGD/MAGD credit.

Approval does not imply acceptance by any regulatory authority or AGD endorsement.

8/1/2021 to 7/31/2027

Provider ID# 211886


AADH Approved Program Provider

Procter & Gamble is designated as an approved Provider by the American Academy of Dental Hygiene, Inc. #AADHPGC (January 1, 2024-December 31, 2025). Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial Board of Dentistry. Licensee should maintain this document in the event of an audit.