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Sedation in the Dental Office: An Overview

Course Number: 464

References / Additional Resources

  1. Nicolas E, Collado V, Faulks D, et al. A national cross-sectional survey of dental anxiety in the French adult population. BMC Oral Health. 2007 Oct 10;7:12.

  2. Locker D, Shapiro D, Liddell A. Who is dentally anxious? Concordance between measures of dental anxiety. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1996 Oct;24(5):346-50.

  3. ter Horst G, de Wit CA. Review of behavioural research in dentistry 1987-1992: dental anxiety, dentist-patient relationship, compliance and dental attendance. Int Dent J. 1993 Jun;43(3 Suppl 1):265-78.

  4. Moore R, Birn H, Kirkegaard E, et al. Prevalence and characteristics of dental anxiety in Danish adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1993 Oct;21(5):292-6.

  5. Malvania EA, Ajithkrishnan CG. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of dental anxiety among a group of adult patients attending a dental institution in Vadodara city, Gujarat, India. Indian J Dent Res. 2011 Jan-Feb;22(1):179-80. doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.79989.

  6. Ekanayake L, Dharmawardena D. Dental anxiety in patients seeking care at the University Dental Hospital in Sri Lanka. Community Dent Health. 2003 Jun;20(2):112-6.

  7. Berggren U, Meynert G. Dental fear and avoidance: causes, symptoms, and consequences. J Am Dent Assoc. 1984 Aug;109(2):247-51.

  8. Schuller AA, Willumsen T, Holst D. Are there differences in oral health and oral health behavior between individuals with high and low dental fear? Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003 Apr;31(2):116-21.

  9. Eitner S, Wichmann M, Paulsen A, et al. Dental anxiety--an epidemiological study on its clinical correlation and effects on oral health. J Oral Rehabil. 2006 Aug;33(8):588-93. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2842.2005.01589.x.

  10. Cooper CL, Mallinger M, Kahn RL. Dentistry: what causes it to be a stressful occupation? Applied Psychology: An International Review. 1980 July;29(3):307-319. Accessed May 24, 2018.

  11. Moore R, Brødsgaard I. Dentists' perceived stress and its relation to perceptions about anxious patients. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2001 Feb;29(1):73-80.

  12. Malamed SF. Sedation: a guide to patient management. 6th edition. St. Louis, MO, Mosby Elsevier, 2018.

  13. Locker D, Liddell A. Clinical correlates of dental anxiety among older adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1992 Dec;20(6):372-5.

  14. Doerr PA, Lang WP, Nyquist LV, et al. Factors associated with dental anxiety. J Am Dent Assoc. 1998 Aug;129(8):1111-9.

  15. Mehrstedt M, John MT, Tönnies S, et al. Oral health-related quality of life in patients with dental anxiety. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2007 Oct;35(5):357-63. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0528.2007.00376.x.

  16. Crofts-Barnes NP, Brough E, Wilson KE, et al. Anxiety and quality of life in phobic dental patients. J Dent Res. 2010 Mar;89(3):302-6. doi: 10.1177/0022034509360189. Epub 2010 Feb 5.

  17. Kumar S, Bhargav P, Patel A, et al. Does dental anxiety influence oral health-related quality of life? Observations from a cross-sectional study among adults in Udaipur district, India. J Oral Sci. 2009 Jun;51(2):245-54.

  18. Cohen SM, Fiske J, Newton JT. The impact of dental anxiety on daily living. Br Dent J. 2000 Oct 14;189(7):385-90.

  19. Goldsmith D. The discovery of anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1974 Nov;21(6):174-80.

  20. Yagiela JA. Office-based anesthesia in dentistry. Past, present, and future trends. Dent Clin North Am. 1999 Apr;43(2):201-15, v.

  21. Jacobsohn PH. Horace Wells: discoverer of anesthesia. Anesth Prog. 1995;42(3-4):73-5.

  22. Jorgensen NB, Hayden J. Sedation, Local and General Anesthesia in Dentistry. 3rd edition. Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1980.

  23. Guideline for Monitoring and Management of Pediatric Patients Before, During, and After Sedation for Diagnostic and Therapeutic Procedures: Update 2016. Pediatr Dent. 2016 Oct 15;38(5):77-106.

  24. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry; American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry Committee on Sedation and Anesthesia. Guideline on the elective use of minimal, moderate, and deep sedation and general anesthesia for pediatric dental patients. Pediatr Dent. 2005-2006;27(7 Suppl):110-8.

  25. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons (AAOMS). Parameters of Care: Clinical Practice Guidelines for Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 2012. Accessed May 24, 2018.

  26. American Dental Association. Guidelines for the Use of Sedation and General Anesthesia by Dentists. Adopted by the ADA House of Delegates. October 2016. Accessed May 24, 2018.

  27. American Dental Association. Guidelines for Teaching Pain Control and Sedation to Dentists and Dental Students. Adopted by the ADA House of Delegates. October, 2016. Accessed May 24, 2018.

  28. Donaldson M, Gizzarelli G, Chanpong B. Oral sedation: a primer on anxiolysis for the adult patient. Anesth Prog. 2007 Fall;54(3):118-28; quiz 129.

  29. Becker DE, Rosenberg M. Nitrous oxide and the inhalation anesthetics. Anesth Prog. 2008 Winter;55(4):124-30; quiz 131-2. doi: 10.2344/0003-3006-55.4.124.

  30. Chapman WP, Arrowood JG, Beecher HK. The analgetic effects of low concentrations of nitrous oxide compared in man with morphine sulphate. J Clin Invest. 1943 Nov;22(6):871-5. doi: 10.1172/JCI101461.

  31. Castéra L, Nègre I, Samii K, et al. Patient-administered nitrous oxide/oxygen inhalation provides safe and effective analgesia for percutaneous liver biopsy: a randomized placebo-controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol. 2001 May;96(5):1553-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2001.03776.x.

  32. Jastak JT, Donaldson D. Nitrous oxide. Anesth Prog. 1991 Jul-Oct;38(4-5):142-53.

  33. Fleming P, Walker PO, Priest JR. Bleomycin therapy: a contraindication to the use of nitrous oxide-oxygen psychosedation in the dental office. Pediatr Dent. 1988 Dec;10(4):345-6.

  34. Brodsky JB, Cohen EN. Adverse effects of nitrous oxide. Med Toxicol. 1986 Sep-Oct;1(5):362-74.

  35. Doyle DJ, Garmon EH. American Society of Anesthesiologists Classification (ASA Class). StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2018-2017 Oct 6.

Additional Resources

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