DentalCare Logo

Caries Process and Prevention Strategies: Demineralization/ Remineralization


Susan Higham, BSc, PhD, CBiol, MRSB; Chris Hope, BSc (Hons), PhD, FHEA; Sabeel Valappil, BSc, MSc, PhD, PGCertEd, FHEA; Phil Smith, BDS, MDS, PhD, FDS, DRD, MRD, FDS (Rest Dent) RCS (Edin), FHEA

Credit Hours:

1 Hour(s)


This course is part 5 of a 10-part series entitled Caries Process and Prevention Strategies. In this course, the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization is discussed, paying particular attention to tooth hard tissue struc...

View More

(Use this feature to create assignments for your students and staff.)


This course is part 5 of a 10-part series entitled Caries Process and Prevention Strategies. In this course, the dynamic process of demineralization and remineralization is discussed, paying particular attention to tooth hard tissue structure, the role of acid production by cariogenic bacteria, and the critical pH at which tooth enamel begins to dissolve. The role of acid-reducing bacteria, saliva, and fluoride in tooth hard tissue remineralization will also be explained.

Caries is the chemical dissolution of the hard tooth structures - enamel and dentin - by the acid created as the bacteria in dental plaque ferment carbohydrates. The development of caries is dependent on the interplay between processes that cause demineralization of tooth enamel, and those which cause remineralization: Only when factors favor the high acidity that leads to demineralization does caries occur.

  • Intended Audience:

    Dentists, Dental Hygienists, Dental Assistants, Dental Students, Dental Hygiene Students, Dental Assisting Students

  • Date Course Online:

    Jan 13, 2011

  • Last Revision Date:

    Aug 27, 2021

  • Course Expiration Date:

    Aug 26, 2024

  • Cost:


  • Method:


  • AGD Subject Code(s):


  • Technical Requirements:

    Stable internet connection and the latest version of browser and device software are recommended.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this course, the dental professional should be able to:

  • Discuss the difference in how tooth enamel and dentin structure are affected by demineralization.
  • Explain the role of bacterial acid production in demineralization.
  • Understand the relationship between critical pH and demineralization.
  • Identify five zones of carious dentin in the advanced lesion.
  • Describe how demineralization affects young children, the elderly, and other special populations.
  • Be familiar with the factors that promote remineralization.


  • P&G is providing these resource materials to dental professionals. We do not own this content nor are we responsible for any material herein.
  • Participants must always be aware of the hazards of using limited knowledge in integrating new techniques or procedures into their practice.  Only sound evidence-based dentistry should be used in patient therapy.

Note:  Registration is required to take test.


Conflict of Interest Disclosure Statement

  • The authors report no conflicts of interest associated with this course.

Video Course Presenter:Robert V. Faller

Sue is currently Honorary Emeritus Professor in the School of Dentistry in the Institute of Life Course and Medical Sciences and Honorary Senior Research Fellow in the Institute of Population Health, University of Liverpool, United Kingdom. ...

View More

Submission Information

Academy of General Dentistry (AGD) Submission For credit transfers to appear in your AGD account in real time, make sure to add your AGD membership number in the field provided on the “Share Your Test Score” page.

CE Broker For all states that use CE Broker for licensure, “proof of completions” are electronically reported the first of every month. If a course was taken in November, the “proof of completion” will be submitted the beginning of December.




Newly updated in 2018 by The Procter & Gamble Company, this course was first developed in conjunction with the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) in 2008. ADEA members are encouraged to go to ADEA weTeach® for a user-friendly gateway providing dental, allied dental and other health educators with access to high-quality teaching, learning and assessment resources. Health care faculty at any stage of their career will benefit from these “how-to” resources, and also gain the opportunity to share and publish educational best practices within MedEdPORTAL®. Visit:

AGD Pace Logo

Approved PACE Program Provider


Nationally Approved PACE Program Provider for FAGD/MAGD credit.

Approval does not imply acceptance by any regulatory authority or AGD endorsement.

8/1/2021 to 7/31/2027

Provider ID# 211886


AADH Approved Program Provider

Procter & Gamble is designated as an approved Provider by the American Academy of Dental Hygiene, Inc. #AADHPGC (January 1, 2024-December 31, 2025). Approval does not imply acceptance by a state or provincial Board of Dentistry. Licensee should maintain this document in the event of an audit.