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Bluish Mass on the Tongue

Case Challenge Number: 74

Diagnostic References

  1. Neville BW, Damm DD, Allen CM, et al. Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. 4th ed. St. Louis, MO. Elsevier. 2016.

  2. Assi R, Kessler HP, Clark CL. Oral and maxillofacial pathology case of the month. Varix with phlebolith. Tex Dent J. 2012 Jul;129(7):684-5, 712-3.

  3. Canaan TJ, Meehan SC. Variations of structure and appearance of the oral mucosa. Dent Clin North Am. 2005 Jan;49(1):1-14, vii. doi: 10.1016/j.cden.2004.07.002.

  4. Kobayashi K, Nakao K, Kishishita S, et al. Vascular malformations of the head and neck. Auris Nasus Larynx. 2013 Feb;40(1):89-92. doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2012.02.002. Epub 2012 Apr 23.

  5. Perez D, Leibold D, Liddell A, et al. Vascular lesions of the maxillofacial region: a case report and review of the literature. Tex Dent J. 2010 Oct;127(10):1045-57.

  6. Buckmiller LM, Richter GT, Suen JY. Diagnosis and management of hemangiomas and vascular malformations of the head and neck. Oral Dis. 2010 Jul;16(5):405-18. doi: 10.1111/j.1601-0825.2010.01661.x. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

  7. Glade RS, Richter GT, James CA, et al. Diagnosis and management of pediatric cervicofacial venous malformations: retrospective review from a vascular anomalies center. Laryngoscope. 2010 Feb;120(2):229-35. doi: 10.1002/lary.20715.

  8. Lin SC, Chang TS. Cutaneous angiosarcoma of the scalp mimicking facial cellulitis. Ear Nose Throat J. 2016 Oct-Nov;95(10-11):438-440.

  9. Hwang K, Kim MY, Lee SH. Recommendations for therapeutic decisions of angiosarcoma of the scalp and face. J Craniofac Surg. 2015 May;26(3):e253-6. doi: 10.1097/SCS.0000000000001495.

  10. Patel SH, Hayden RE, Hinni ML, et al. Angiosarcoma of the scalp and face: the Mayo Clinic experience. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2015 Apr;141(4):335-40. doi: 10.1001/jamaoto.2014.3584.

  11. Nagata M, Yoshitake Y, Nakayama H, et al. Angiosarcoma of the oral cavity: a clinicopathological study and a review of the literature. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2014 Aug;43(8):917-23. doi: 10.1016/j.ijom.2014.02.008. Epub 2014 Mar 19.

  12. de Queiroz AM, Silva RA, Margato LC, et al. Dental care management of a young patient with extensive lymphangioma of the tongue: a case report. Spec Care Dentist. 2006 Jan-Feb;26(1):20-4.

  13. Brennan TD, Miller AS, Chen SY. Lymphangiomas of the oral cavity: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and electron-microscopic study. J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 1997 Sep;55(9):932-5.

  14. Thompson TL, Gungor A. Diffuse, encasing lymphangioma of the supraglottis. Am J Otolaryngol. 2016 Jan-Feb;37(1):41-3. doi: 10.1016/j.amjoto.2015.09.009. Epub 2015 Sep 10.